Tensiomyography (TMG) is a noninvasive tool used to assess contractile tissue properties during an isometric muscle contraction. Owing to portability and versatility for assessing muscle parameters, TMG may be of value to the strength and conditioning (S&C) specialist. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the reliability of TMG measurements. PubMed, PEDro, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2021 by 2 authors, who independently examined all titles and abstracts to determine initial eligibility. Inclusion criteria included any study assessing the reliability of TMG parameters, published in English, published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and included participants with no significant musculoskeletal conditions. Exclusion criteria included the following elements: TMG assessment process not clearly delineated, reliability of specific TMG parameters not clearly defined, and statistical methods for determining reliability not clearly defined. All studies underwent a quality assessment using the Modified Downs and Black checklist for assessing quality studies, and results were extracted from qualified articles. In total, 635 studies were identified, with 16 studies retained after full-text reviews. Twelve studies had poor quality, whereas 4 had fair quality. Noninvasive TMG has good to excellent absolute and interrater reliability for measuring the properties of skeletal muscles.

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The purpose of the study was to compare sex adaptations in hypertrophy, strength and contractile properties of upper and lower-body muscles induced by resistance training (RT). Eighteen RT untrained male (MG) and female (FG) students  undervent 7 weeks of biceps curl and squat training (2 days/week, 60–70% repetition maximum, 3–4 sets, 120 s rest intervals, reps until muscular failure). At baseline and final measurement, thickness and cross-section area, one-repetition maximum and tensiomyography parameters (contraction time − Tc and radial displacement − Dm) of elbow flexors (biceps brachii) and knee extensors (4 quadriceps muscles) were evaluated. Although MG tends to display greater absolute strength gains for upper- (p = 0.055) and lower-body (p = 0.098), for relative changes ANCOVA revealed no sex-specific differences for either of the tested variables. Significant hypertrophy was observed for all tested muscles, except for vastus intermedius in FG (p = 0.076). The Dm significantly decreased for biceps brachii (MG by 12%, p < 0.01 and FG by 13.1%, p < 0.01) and rectus femoris (MG by19.2%, p < 0.01 and FG by 12.3%, p < 0.05), while Tc values remain unchanged. These results indicate that initial morphological, functional and contractile alterations following RT are similar for males and females, and that there are no specific sex adaptations either for the upper- or lower-body muscles.

 

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The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement (Dm) of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of both legs before and after each warm-up, while countermovement jump height variables, 20 m sprint, t-test and sit-and-reach were measured following the warm-ups. TMG was analyzed using a three-way [condition × time × leg] ANOVA, while performance variables were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects of time were observed for BF-Tc (p = 0.035), RF-Td (p < 0.001), and BF-Td, (p = 0.008), and a main effect of condition was seen for RF-Tc (p = 0.038). Moreover, participants’ 20 m sprint improved following SSG (p = 0.021) compared to DYN and PLY. Sit-and-reach was greater following PLY (p = 0.021). No significant interactions were noted for the measured TMG variables. Warm-up-specific improvements were demonstrated in sprint speed and flexibility following SSG and PLY, respectively. The present study revealed changes in certain TMG measures following the warm-ups that suggest enhanced response of lower leg muscles regardless of specific activities used.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of set configuration on mechanical performance, neuromuscular activity, metabolic response, and muscle contractile properties. A battery of tests was performed before and after each protocol: (a) tensiomyography (TMG), (b) blood lactate and ammonia concentration, (c) countermovement jump, and (d) maximal voluntary isometric contraction in the squat exercise. Force, velocity, and power output values, along with electromyography data, were recorded for every repetition throughout each protocol. The 3 × 8 protocol induced greater lactate and ammonia concentrations, greater reductions in jump height, and greater impairments in TMG-derived velocity of deformation after exercise than 6 × 4. Therefore, implementing lower-repetition sets with shorter and more frequent interset rest intervals attenuates impairments in mechanical performance, especially in the final repetitions of each set. These effects may be mediated by lower neuromuscular alterations, reduced metabolic stress, and better maintained muscle contractile properties.

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After 1 week of body mass maintenance (45 kcal/kg), 28 male college students not performing resistance training were randomized to either the energy-restricted (ER, 30 kcal/kg, n = 14) or the eucaloric control group (CG, 45 kcal/kg, n = 14) for 6 weeks. Both groups had their protein intake matched at 2.8 g/kg fat-free-mass and continued their habitual training throughout the study. Body composition was assessed weekly using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Contractile properties of the m. rectus femoris were examined with Tensiomyography and MyotonPRO at weeks 1, 3, and 5 along with sleep (PSQI) and mood (POMS).

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The purposes of this study were to determine if there are sex-based differences in muscular contractile properties as measured by tensiomyography (TMG) and to determine if plyometrics or the isometric midthigh pull are effective methods of eliciting postactivation potentiation (PAP). Thirty strong, resistance-trained men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) underwent 3 testing days consisting of a PAP or control protocol, and pre-TMG and post-TMG and performance testing. Contractile properties from TMG were assessed in the gastrocnemius medial head (GMH), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF).

 

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of four methods of assessing vastus lateralis (VL) stiffness, and to describe the influence of structural characteristics on them. The stiffness of the dominant lower-limb’s VL was evaluated in 53 healthy participants (28.4 ± 9.1 years) with shear wave elastography (SWE), strain elastography (SE), myotonometry and tensiomyography (TMG). The SWE, SE and myotonometry were performed at 50%, and TMG was assessed at 30%, of the length from the upper pole of the patella to the greater trochanter. The thickness of the VL, adipose tissue and superficial connective tissue was also measured with ultrasound. Three repeated measurements were acquired to assess reliability, using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships between methodologic assessments and between structural characteristics and stiffness assessments of the VL.

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Background: Pre-competition massage is usually used to improve athletic performance and reduce risk of injury. Despite its usual use, the effects of pre-competition massage on neuromuscular function have barely been studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the pre-competition massage over the gastrocnemius neuromuscular function. Method: The study is a quasi-experimental clinical trial thirty healthy athletes were enrolled in the study. Subjects received an intervention in one leg (experimental), consisting of a massage, and no intervention in the opposite leg (control). From all values of neuromuscular function, the following were analyzed: contraction time (Tc) and maximal displacement (Dm) by tensiomyography, and stiffness and tone by myotonometry. Results: Main effects of pre-competition massage on neuromuscular function include a significant (p < 0.05) increase in Tc and Dm variables, as well as a reduction in stiffness and tone. Conclusion: Data shows an increase in Tc and maximal radial displacement (Dm) variables, as well as a reduction in stiffness and tone. More quality studies are needed to draw clear conclusions about the effects of pre-competition massage.

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Low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue in most industrialised countries. Lumbodorsal fascia has been advocated as a potential source of pain in the lumbopelvic region. Myofascial release constitutes a manual therapeutic approach focussing on the restoration of altered soft tissue function. No previous study has focused on quantifying neuromechanical effects of myofascial release on LBP patients through tensiomyography (TMG). The purpose of this study was to quantify immediate neuromechanical alterations of myofascial release on patients with LBP and healthy controls through TMG parameters.

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Studies on muscle activation time in sport after caffeine supplementation confirmed the effectiveness of caffeine. The novel approach was to determine whether a dose of 9 mg/kg/ body mass (b.m.) of caffeine affects the changes of contraction time and the displacement of electrically stimulated muscle (gastrocnemius medialis) in professional athletes who regularly consume products rich in caffeine and do not comply with the caffeine discontinuation period requirements. The study included 40 professional male handball players (age = 23.13 ± 3.51, b.m. = 93.51 ± 15.70 kg, height 191 ± 7.72, BMI = 25.89 ± 3.10). The analysis showed that in the experimental group the values of examined parameters were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.001) (contraction time: before = 20.60 ± 2.58 ms/ after = 18.43 ± 3.05 ms; maximal displacement: before = 2.32 ± 0.80 mm/after = 1.69 ± 0.51 mm). No significant changes were found in the placebo group. The main achievement of this research was to demonstrate that caffeine at a dose of 9 mg/kg in professional athletes who regularly consume products rich in caffeine has a direct positive effect on the mechanical activity of skeletal muscle stimulated by an electric pulse.

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