Feasible, non-invasive techniques that reliably evaluate metrics including muscle pain, dynamic structure, contractility, circulatory function, body composition, and emerging biomarkers are imperative to unraveling the complexities of skeletal muscle. Our concise review highlights innovative or overlooked approaches for comprehensively assessing skeletal muscle in vivo. We summarize recent advances in leveraging dynamic ultrasound imaging, muscle echogenicity, tensiomyography, blood flow restriction protocols, molecular techniques, body composition, and pain assessments to gain novel insight into muscle physiology from cellular to whole-body perspectives.

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