The purpose of the study was to compare sex adaptations in hypertrophy, strength and contractile properties of upper and lower-body muscles induced by resistance training (RT). Eighteen RT untrained male (MG) and female (FG) students  undervent 7 weeks of biceps curl and squat training (2 days/week, 60–70% repetition maximum, 3–4 sets, 120 s rest intervals, reps until muscular failure). At baseline and final measurement, thickness and cross-section area, one-repetition maximum and tensiomyography parameters (contraction time − Tc and radial displacement − Dm) of elbow flexors (biceps brachii) and knee extensors (4 quadriceps muscles) were evaluated. Although MG tends to display greater absolute strength gains for upper- (p = 0.055) and lower-body (p = 0.098), for relative changes ANCOVA revealed no sex-specific differences for either of the tested variables. Significant hypertrophy was observed for all tested muscles, except for vastus intermedius in FG (p = 0.076). The Dm significantly decreased for biceps brachii (MG by 12%, p < 0.01 and FG by 13.1%, p < 0.01) and rectus femoris (MG by19.2%, p < 0.01 and FG by 12.3%, p < 0.05), while Tc values remain unchanged. These results indicate that initial morphological, functional and contractile alterations following RT are similar for males and females, and that there are no specific sex adaptations either for the upper- or lower-body muscles.


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