They studied the effects of age on different physiological parameters, including those derived from the i) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), ii) moderate-intensity step-transitions and iii) tensiomyography (TMG)-derived variables in moderately active women. Twenty-eight women (age range from 19 to 53 y), completed three laboratory visits, including baseline data collection, TMG assessment, V̇O2 max. test via CPET, and a step-transition test from 20 W to a moderate-intensity cycling power output (PO), corresponding to V̇O2 at 90% gas exchange threshold. During the step-transitions breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2p), near infrared spectroscopy derived muscle deoxygenation (ΔHHb), and beat-by-beat cardiovascular response were continuously monitored. There were no differences observed between the young and middle-aged women in their V̇O2 max. and peak PO, while the HR max. was 12 bpm lower in middle-aged compared to young (p=.016). Also, no differences were observed between the age groups in τV̇O2p, ΔHHb, and τHR during on-transients. The first regression model showed that age did not attenuate the maximal CPET capacity in the studied population (p=.638), while in the second model a faster τV̇O2p, combined with shorter TMG-derived contraction time (Tc) of the vastus lateralis (VL), were associated with a higher V̇O2 max. (~30% of explained variance, p=.039). In conclusion, long lasting exercise involvement protects against a V̇O2 max. and τV̇O2p deterioration in moderately active women. Novelty bullets: • Faster pulmonary τV̇O2p and shorter Tc of the VL explain 33% of the variance in superior V̇O2 max. attainment; • No differences between age groups were found in τV̇O2p, τΔHHb, τHR, during on-transient.

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Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to a) explore the effectiveness of the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and cold water immersion (CWI) to recover muscle mechanical function (MuscleMechFx), hydration status (HydS), pain perception (PainPercep), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), sleep hours, and sleep quality (SleepQual) during a regional multi-sports international championship and b) compare these results by sex. Methods: A total of 52 basketball and handball players were exposed to a recovery protocol after the competition as follows: IPC, sequential 20 min at 200 mmHg, and CWI, continuous 12 min at 12 °C. Results: MuscleMechFx presented differences by match and sex (p = 0.058) in time of contraction of biceps femoris; SleepQual and sleep hours were different between matches (<0.01). Conclusions: IPC + CWI seems to be effective to maintain some MuscleMechFx, HydS, and recovery and pain perception during a congested multi-sport tournament.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in mechanical and contractile properties of knee joint flexor and extensor muscles between differently trained men and women, using tensiomyography (TMG). The sample consisted of 159 subjects (84 men and 75 women), who were assigned to one of 5 groups according to the following levels and types of their physical activity: physically inactive, physically active nonathletes, strength and power athletes, endurance athletes, and team sports athletes. Measurements were performed on the following knee flexor and extensor muscles of the dominant leg: rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. The results showed significant differences in contraction time—Tc and delay time—Td parameters between differently trained men and women, whereas in other TMG parameters, there were no differences between groups. It is indicated that physical activities characteristic of strength and power sports (combat sports and sprint disciplines) could lead to an increased speed of twitch force generation and fast twitch muscle fibers, and that almost any regular, systematic, and planned physical activity leads to increased muscle responsiveness. Obtained results also indicated that TMG parameters do not have enough specific discriminatory power for detecting differences between differently trained young adults.

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An Observational Study:

Sex-based differences in muscle stiffness and contractile characteristics could be observed by TENSIOMYOGRAPHY (TMG) on LES muscles in healthy individuals at rest. The data suggest that these disparities are not exclusively attributable to anthropometric measures but may be linked to intrinsic sex-based differences in skeletal muscle characteristics.

They recommend implementing TENSIOMYOGRAPHY (TMG) in a clinical setting using the obtained results as a basis to factor for the patient’s biological sex when assessing effects of therapeutic/exercise regimens aiming at the optimization of myofascial tissue regeneration and performance.

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A Cross-Over Randomised Trial.
Muscle contractile properties in clinical practice are often measured using either subjective scales or high-cost, inaccessible equipment. In this randomised cross-over study, we aimed to explore the use of tensiomyography (TMG) to assess changes in muscle contractile properties after cold- and warm-water immersion. The muscle contractile properties of the biceps femoris (BF) were assessed using TMG in 12 healthy active men (mean age 23 ± 3 years, Body Mass Index 22.9 ± 1.3 kg/m2) before and after a 20-min warm- or cold-water immersion over a period of 40 min. Muscle displacement (Dm) and contraction time (Tc) were registered as the main variables of the study. There was a significant condition by time interaction for Dm (p < 0.01). Post hoc analysis showed that, compared to the baseline, there was an increase in Dm 40 min after warm-water immersion (p < 0.01) and a decrease at 10 min after cold-water immersion (p < 0.01). No significant effect was found for Tc. Our results indicate that muscle contractile properties are affected by water temperature and time after the immersion; therefore, these factors should be taken into account when water-immersion is used as a recovery strategy.

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